The pump is what draws water from below the ground and up into your plumbing system. It's generally the biggest potential expense of a well owner, so the inspector will spend much of their determining if it's working properly. They will check things like the ohms and amps from the electric pump, line voltage, and grounding.
If the pump is working as it was designed to, the inspector will check the water flow to see how it moves through the system. They will test the rate of water flowing through pipes as well as points that should stimulate water movement at certain pressure ranges. The inspector will answer many water movement questions, such as the following: How long does it take water to get to major points in the system? Is the pressure tank signaling that more water needs to be delivered? Are pipes leading to areas of the house correctly filled with water?
Along with testing the results of your pump operation, the inspector will physically inspect many components to check for wear, cracks, fraying, breakage, and other signs of aging. Using the well's history and what they know about the flow of water, they can also provide information on what parts are reaching the end of their useful lives as well.Since the well equipment involves your family's drinking water, the inspector will also check for any indications of unsanitary conditions. Bacterial organisms on the equipment could contaminate your water and put you in danger of getting diseases like hepatitis and dysentery.
The well inspection is not a well water quality test. A well water quality test is different than a functionality test, but is recommended.
Finally, whoever ordered the inspection will receive a full report on the inspector's findings. This report will be quite detailed and will generally include specifics about the pressure and voltages. But it should also be clearly written so that you can understand and take action based on recommendations included.